The Effects of MSM Supplementation on Knee Kinetics during Running, Muscle Strength, and Muscle Soreness following Eccentric Exercise-Induced Quadriceps Damage.
Peel S, Melcher D, Schilling BK, Bloomer RJ, Paquette M.American Society of Biomechanics 2015 Annual Meeting.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MSM supplementation on knee joint kinetics during running and DOMS following eccentric knee extensor damage. It was expected that the MSM intervention would reduce the negative effects of muscle damage on these variables.
Methods: Forty healthy resistance trained men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: MSM at 3g/day (n=20) or placebo (n=20) and supplemented one month. Subjects were tested over five days at: Baseline, 0hrs, 24hrs, 48hrs, and 72hrs. Muscle damage protocol was 10 sets of 10 reps of eccentric seated knee extensions on 4-second count with 2-minute rest between sets. Self-reported muscle soreness was measured using 10-point VAS. Muscle damage was quantified with maximum voluntary isometric knee extensor force using a load cell. An 8-camera motion analysis system, and a force platform were used to obtain 3D kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data, respectively. Visual3D biomechanical analysis software was used to compute 3D kinematic and kinetic variable of the right limb during running. Sagittal knee stiffness was computed as the ration of the change in extensor moment and knee flexion ROM.
Results: Maximal isometric force to assess muscle damage showed no interaction or group effect but showed a time main effect. Maximal force was reduced at every time point compared to baseline, except 72hrs. By 72hrs post damage, values returned to baseline for subject in the MSM condition but remained 8% below for placebo, though not statistically significant. DOMS during passive stretch was lower in MSM group but remained elevated above baseline. To interaction or group effects were found for biomechanical variables. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM does not favorably influence knee biomechanics following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage using knee extension exercise. MSM supplementation may positively impact muscle force recovery, as well as DOMS during passive stretch.
Effects of MSM on exercise-induced muscle and joint pain: a pilot study.
Withee E, Tippens K, Dehen R, Hanes D.J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(Suppl 1):P8.
Background: Participants in organized running events commonly experience muscle and joint pain while training and competing in distance running events. Many runners report pain being a major factor in changes or breaks in training regimens, and pain is a common deterrent for returning to exercise programs. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a small sulfur-based compound commonly used to improve joint health. There is evidence it may be effective in reducing pain associated with osteoarthritis, and it may have some pain relieving anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of three weeks of MSM supplementation on muscle and joint pain after running a half-marathon.
Methods: Twenty-two healthy females (N=17) and males (N=5) (33.7 ± 6.9 yrs.) were recruited from the 2014 Portland Half-Marathon registrant pool for this study. Participants were randomized to take either MSM (N=11), or a Placebo (N=11) at 3 grams per day for 21 days prior to the race and two days after (23 days total). MSM and Placebo were provided by Bergstrom Nutrition (Vancouver, WA). Pain was recorded using a 100mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for both muscle pain (MP) and joint pain (JP) on a single questionnaire. Participants completed a pain questionnaire at five time points: Baseline levels (T0) were recorded approximately one month before the race and prior to supplementation. Post-race pain levels were recorded at 15 minutes (T1), 90 minutes (T2), 1 Day (T3), and 2 days (T4) after crossing the finish line. Data were analyzed using Repeated ANOVAs controlled for baseline levels, and Student’s T-Tests with significance set at p<0.05.
Results: Completion of a half-marathon significantly increased pain, resulting in significant time effects for both MP (p=0.001) and JP (p=0.001). Mean MP at T0 (15.3mm) significantly increased at T1 (39.1mm; p=0.001), T2 (33.9mm; p=0.009), and T3 (36.4mm; p=0.003), and fell to non-significant levels at T4 (21.4mm; p=0.261). Mean JP at T0 (8.7mm) significantly increased at T1 (33.7mm; p<0.001), T2 (31.4mm; p<0.009), and T3 (24.2mm; p=0.006), and diminished to non-significant levels at T4 (16.5mm; p=0.223). The results showed a trend of lower pain levels in the MSM group, though time-by-treatment effects did not reach significance in either MP (p=0.117) and JP (p=0.136). Compared to placebo, MSM supplementation resulted in nearly significantly lower MP at T1 (MSM=27.3mm vs. Placebo=39.3mm, p=0.063), and lower MP at T2 (27.1mm vs. 40.0mm; p=0.300), and T3 (30.0mm vs. 41.9mm; p=0.306). Similar results were seen for JP at T1 (24.2mm vs. 42.4mm; p=0.156), T2 (22.7mm vs 39.3mm; p=0.204), and T3 (15.4mm vs. 32.2mm; p=0.152).
Conclusion: Exercise-induced muscle pain and joint pain increase within 15 minutes after completing a half-marathon, continue through the following day, and diminish approximately two days post-race. Three weeks of MSM supplementation at 3g/day attenuated post-exercise muscle and joint pain at clinically significant levels compared to placebo. However, the pain reductions did not reach statistical significance, warranting further research on MSM and post-exercise pain using a larger group.
A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Evaluation of MSM for Exercise Induced Discomfort/Pain.
Kalman DS, Feldman S, Samson A, Krieger DR.Experimental Biology Conference and Expo.; 2013.
Background: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory & antioxidant effects in mammals. Resistance exercise is known to induce both inflammation & oxidative stress resulting in muscular discomfort & pain. In a pilot-proof of concept study, we determined the effects of MSM on markers of exercise recovery & performance.
Methods: In random order 24 moderately exercise-trained men (25.5±5.6 yrs) received MSM 3.0 gm/d or PLA, for 14 days, with a 17-day washout between. The study included 3 tests: baseline, no product & the 2nd & 3rd following 14d supplementation with MSM & PLA. Each test consisted of 2 visits. At the 1st visit, subjects performed stressing exercise; 28 total sets of leg extensions, sets 1-25, predetermined weight, 10 reps each, sets 26-28 to muscular failure at 70% 1-RM (performance). At the 2nd visit (48 hrs later), subjects performed 12 total sets of leg ext, sets 1-9, predetermined weight, sets 10-12 to muscular failure, 70% 1-RM (performance). Muscle discomfort/pain (10-point VAS scale), inflammation (hs-CRP & IL-6), blood antioxidant status (TEAC & SOD), & homocysteine were measured before the stressing exercise and 2 & 48 hours post exercise. Exercise performance was also measured following 14d supplementation with MSM/PLA (sets 26-28 and sets 10-12). In order to eliminate sequence effects, results are provided on the 1st product as compared to baseline (comparison of the 1st & 2nd tests).
Results: MSM intervention resulted in significantly less pain/discomfort vs. PLA from baseline to 2 hrs (1.55±0.82 vs 3.75±2.58, p=0.012). Change in IL-6 was significant within the MSM & PLA & between MSM (0.54±0.76) vs PLA (-0.58±0.97) p = 0.006. There were no significant differences between MSM & PLA noted for the other biomarkers.
Conclusion: MSM may help alleviate the discomfort/pain that can follow a stressful exercise session.
Effect of Single Dose Administration of Methylsulfonylmethane on Oxidative Stress Following Acute Exhaustive Exercise.
Nakhostin-Roohi B, Niknam Z, Vaezi N, Mohammadi S, Bohlooli S.Iran J Pharm Res. 2013;12(4):845-853.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound commonly found in diet and known to reduce oxidative stress. This trial was conducted to determine whether single dose supplementation with MSM attenuates post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy untrained young men. Sixteen untrained men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into 2 groups: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) (n = 8) and placebo (n = 8). The participants took supplementation or placebo before running on treadmill for 45 min at 75% VO2max. The MSM supplementation was prepared in water as 100 mg/kg body weight. The placebo group received water. Serum Malondealdehyde (MDA), uric acid, bilirubin, protein carbonyl (PC) and plasma vitamin E levels were determined as the markers of oxidative stress. Plasma GSH (reduced Glutathione) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured as markers of plasma antioxidant system. MSM supplementation successfully lowered serum PC 2 and 24 h after exercise. Plasma TAC in MSM group was higher at 24 h after exercise. Serum level of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly low immediately after exercise in MSM supplemented group. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of plasma GSH level. These results complement earlier studies showing anti-oxidant effect of MSM and suggest that single dose oral supplementation with MSM lowers exercise induced oxidative stress in healthy untrained young men, but is not adequate to significantly affect plasma GSH level.
Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity.
Barmaki, S. Bohlooli, S. Khoshkhahesh, F. Nakhostin-Roohi B.J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2012;52:170-174.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of 10-day methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage.
METHODS: Eighteen healthy, non-smoking, active young men were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (M) (N.=9) and placebo (P) (N.=9). Subjects consumed daily either placebo (200 mL water) or MSM supplement (50 mg/kg MSM in 200 mL water) for 10 days. Afterward, participants ran 14 km. Blood samples were taken before supplementation, before exercise, immediately, 30 min, 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise.
RESULTS: CK and bilirubin significantly increased in P group 24 h after exercise compared to M group (P=0.041 and P=0.002, respectively). TAC increased immediately post, 30 min, 2 and 24 h after exercise just in M group (P<0.05). TAC showed significant increase in M group 2 and 24 h after exercise compared to P group (P=0.014 and P=0.033, respectively).
CONCLUSION: It seems that 10-day supplementation with MSM has allowed to decrease muscle damage via effect on antioxidant capacity.
Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study.
Kalman DS, Feldman S, Scheinberg AR, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ.J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9(1):46.
BACKGROUND: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men.
METHODS: Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1-15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16-18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16-18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.
Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men.
Nakhostin-Roohi B, Barmaki S, Khoshkhahesh F, Bohlooli S.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011;63(10):1290-1294.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the effects of chronic daily methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in untrained healthy young men.
METHODS: Eighteen untrained men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (n = 9) and placebo (n = 9). The participants took supplementation or placebo daily for 10 days before running. Participants ran 14 km. The MSM supplementation was prepared in water at 50 mg/kg body weight. The placebo group received water. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and plasma oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured as markers of oxidative stress. The plasma-reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the GSH/GSSG ratio were determined as markers of plasma antioxidant capacity.
KEY FINDINGS: Acute exercise led to elevated levels of serum MDA, PC and plasma GSSG. MSM supplementation maintained PC, MDA and GSSG at lower levels after exercise than the placebo. The plasma level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG were significantly higher in the MSM supplemented group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chronic daily oral supplementation of MSM has alleviating effects on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in healthy young men.
The effect of methyl sulphonyl methane supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress in sport horses following jumping exercise.
Marañón G, Muñoz-escassi B, Manley W, et al.Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50(45).
Background: Exercise induces changes in several organs and tissues, and this process might be due to oxidative damage caused by free radicals and inflammatory mediators. Methyl Sulphonyl Methane, better known as MSM, is a naturally occurring sulphur compound with well-known antioxidant properties. On the other hand, Vitamin C is important in limiting free radical damage in the aqueous phase of the cell, and cellular vitamin C status may be linked to the mechanisms involved in quenching cellular reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to determine if supplementation with MSM and vitamin C could alleviate exercise-induced oxidative stress in horses undergoing jumping competition.
Methods: Twenty four jumping horses involved in competition were used. Horses were given the following three treatment diets: control (without supplementation), MSM 8 mg/kg, and combined supplements (MSM 8 mg/kg + Vit-C 5 mg/kg). EDTA blood samples were collected before exercise, upon arrived to the schooling area (control), and each week after last show. Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, lipid hydroperoxides and the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase and glutathione reductase, plasma levels were determined.
Results: Competition induced a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. By contrary, reduced glutathione as well as antioxidant enzyme activities, were decreased. MSM administration significantly ameliorated all these exercise-related changes, and this effect was potentiated by Vit C reaching values in some of the parameters similar to those found before competition.
Conclusion: These results suggest that jumping exercise could induce harmful effects on horses, probably due to an increase in oxidative damage and proinflammatory molecules. In addition, we have demonstrated that MSM could exert some protective effect on oxidative and inflammatory exercise-induced injury.