AIM: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a non-pharmacologic nutrition supplement used against osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: Delineate the effect of MSM on osteoarthritic joints and mobility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 100 patients, with hip and/or knee OA stratified in an intervention and a placebo group. Intervention: MSM 6 gr per day or placebo for 26 weeks. Outcomes measured were the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index visual analogue scale (WOMAC), patient and physician assessments and SF-36 (overall health-related quality of life). RESULTS: Compared to placebo the MSM group presented significant decreases in all subscales of WOMAC (P < 0.05) with improved performance of daily living activities on the SF-36 evaluation (P < 0.05). Patient and Physician assessments exhibited favorable effects on the MSM group CONCLUSION: MSM improved all physical symptoms in the WOMAC scale during the short intervention without any adverse events.
BACKGROUND: Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) take a variety of health supplements in an attempt to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in treating patients with knee OA.
METHODS: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Forty nine men and women 45-90 (mean 68 ± SD 7.3) years of age with knee OA according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for OA of the knee and with radiographic confirmed knee OA were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned into 2 groups: One received MSM in doses of 1.125 grams 3 times daily for 12 weeks and the other received a placebo in the same dosing frequency. The primary outcomes were the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index for pain, stiffness and physical function, the Aggregated Locomotor Function (ALF) test that evaluates each patient's physical function, the SF-36 quality of life health survey and the visual-analogue-scale (VAS) for pain. The secondary outcomes were Knee Society Clinical Rating System for Knee Score (KSKS) and Function Score (KSFS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. All continuous variables were tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for Normal distribution. Changes within the groups and differences between the groups were calculated by repeated measures of analysis (ANOVA) with one nested variable.
RESULTS: There were significant differences between treatment groups over time in WOMAC physical function (14.6 mm [CI: 4.3, 25.0]; p = 0.04) and in WOMAC total score (15.0 mm [CI: 5.1, 24.9]; p = 0.03). Treatment groups did not differ significantly in WOMAC pain (12.4 mm [CI: 0.0, 24.8]); p = 0.08) or WOMAC stiffness (27.2 mm [CI: 8.2, 46.2]; p = 0.08). There was a non-significant difference in SF-36 total score between treatment groups (11.6 [CI: 1.0, 22.1]; p = 0.54). A significant difference was found between groups in VAS for pain (0.7 s [CI: -0.9, 2.4]; p = 0.05). Secondary outcomes showed non-significant differences between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with OA of the knee taking MSM for 12 weeks showed an improvement in pain and physical function. These improvements, however, are small and it is yet to be determined if they are of clinical significance.
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the second most common cause of long-term disability among middle-aged and older adults in the United States. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a popular dietary supplement used as a single agent and in combination with other nutrients, and purported to be beneficial for arthritis. However, there is paucity of evidence to support the use of MSM.
METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Fifty men and women, 40-76 years of age with knee OA pain were enrolled in an outpatient medical center. Intervention was MSM 3g or placebo twice a day for 12 weeks (6g/day total). Outcomes included the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index visual analogue scale (WOMAC), patient and physician global assessments (disease status, response to therapy), and SF-36 (overall health-related quality of life).
RESULTS: Compared to placebo, MSM produced significant decreases in WOMAC pain and physical function impairment (P<0.05). No notable changes were found in WOMAC stiffness and aggregated total symptoms scores. MSM also produced improvement in performing activities of daily living when compared to placebo on the SF-36 evaluation (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: MSM (3g twice a day) improved symptoms of pain and physical function during the short intervention without major adverse events. The benefits and safety of MSM in managing OA and long-term use cannot be confirmed from this pilot trial, but its potential clinical application is examined. Underlying mechanisms of action and need for further investigation of MSM are discussed.
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine, classified as a slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SADOA), is an efficacious chondroprotective agent. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), the isoxidised form of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DSMO), is an effective natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral glucosamine (Glu), methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), their combination and placebo in osteoarthritis of the knee.
PATIENTS AND DESIGN: A total of 118 patients of either sex with mild to moderate osteoarthritis were included in the study and randomised to receive either Glu 500mg, MSM 500mg, Glu and MSM or placebo capsules three times daily for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated at 0 (before drug administration), 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-treatment for efficacy and safety. The efficacy parameters studied were the pain index, the swelling index, visual analogue scale pain intensity, 15m walking time, the Lequesne index, and consumption of rescue medicine.
RESULTS: Glu, MSM and their combination significantly improved signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis compared with placebo. There was a statistically significant decrease in mean (+/- SD) pain index from 1.74 +/- 0.47 at baseline to 0.65 +/- 0.71 at week 12 with Glu (p < 0.001). MSM significantly decreased the mean pain index from 1.53 +/- 0.51 to 0.74 +/- 0.65, and combination treatment resulted in a more significant decrease in the mean pain index (1.7 +/- 0.47 to 0.36 +/- 0.33; p < 0.001). After 12 weeks, the mean swelling index significantly decreased with Glu and MSM, while the decrease in swelling index with combination therapy was greater (1.43 +/- 0.63 to 0.14 +/- 0.35; p < 0.05) after 12 weeks. The combination produced a statistically significant decrease in the Lequesne index. All treatments were well tolerated.
CONCLUSION: Glu, MSM and their combination produced an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in osteoarthritis. Combination therapy showed better efficacy in reducing pain and swelling and in improving the functional ability of joints than the individual agents. All the treatments were well tolerated. The onset of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity was found to be more rapid with the combination than with Glu. It can be concluded that the combination of MSM with Glu provides better and more rapid improvement in patients with osteoarthritis.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MSM supplementation on knee joint kinetics during running and DOMS following eccentric knee extensor damage. It was expected that the MSM intervention would reduce the negative effects of muscle damage on these variables.
Methods: Forty healthy resistance trained men were randomly assigned to one of two groups: MSM at 3g/day (n=20) or placebo (n=20) and supplemented one month. Subjects were tested over five days at: Baseline, 0hrs, 24hrs, 48hrs, and 72hrs. Muscle damage protocol was 10 sets of 10 reps of eccentric seated knee extensions on 4-second count with 2-minute rest between sets. Self-reported muscle soreness was measured using 10-point VAS. Muscle damage was quantified with maximum voluntary isometric knee extensor force using a load cell. An 8-camera motion analysis system, and a force platform were used to obtain 3D kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data, respectively. Visual3D biomechanical analysis software was used to compute 3D kinematic and kinetic variable of the right limb during running. Sagittal knee stiffness was computed as the ration of the change in extensor moment and knee flexion ROM.
Results: Maximal isometric force to assess muscle damage showed no interaction or group effect but showed a time main effect. Maximal force was reduced at every time point compared to baseline, except 72hrs. By 72hrs post damage, values returned to baseline for subject in the MSM condition but remained 8% below for placebo, though not statistically significant. DOMS during passive stretch was lower in MSM group but remained elevated above baseline. To interaction or group effects were found for biomechanical variables. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MSM does not favorably influence knee biomechanics following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage using knee extension exercise. MSM supplementation may positively impact muscle force recovery, as well as DOMS during passive stretch.
Background: Participants in organized running events commonly experience muscle and joint pain while training and competing in distance running events. Many runners report pain being a major factor in changes or breaks in training regimens, and pain is a common deterrent for returning to exercise programs. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a small sulfur-based compound commonly used to improve joint health. There is evidence it may be effective in reducing pain associated with osteoarthritis, and it may have some pain relieving anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of three weeks of MSM supplementation on muscle and joint pain after running a half-marathon.
Methods: Twenty-two healthy females (N=17) and males (N=5) (33.7 ± 6.9 yrs.) were recruited from the 2014 Portland Half-Marathon registrant pool for this study. Participants were randomized to take either MSM (N=11), or a Placebo (N=11) at 3 grams per day for 21 days prior to the race and two days after (23 days total). MSM and Placebo were provided by Bergstrom Nutrition (Vancouver, WA). Pain was recorded using a 100mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for both muscle pain (MP) and joint pain (JP) on a single questionnaire. Participants completed a pain questionnaire at five time points: Baseline levels (T0) were recorded approximately one month before the race and prior to supplementation. Post-race pain levels were recorded at 15 minutes (T1), 90 minutes (T2), 1 Day (T3), and 2 days (T4) after crossing the finish line. Data were analyzed using Repeated ANOVAs controlled for baseline levels, and Student’s T-Tests with significance set at p<0.05.
Results: Completion of a half-marathon significantly increased pain, resulting in significant time effects for both MP (p=0.001) and JP (p=0.001). Mean MP at T0 (15.3mm) significantly increased at T1 (39.1mm; p=0.001), T2 (33.9mm; p=0.009), and T3 (36.4mm; p=0.003), and fell to non-significant levels at T4 (21.4mm; p=0.261). Mean JP at T0 (8.7mm) significantly increased at T1 (33.7mm; p<0.001), T2 (31.4mm; p<0.009), and T3 (24.2mm; p=0.006), and diminished to non-significant levels at T4 (16.5mm; p=0.223). The results showed a trend of lower pain levels in the MSM group, though time-by-treatment effects did not reach significance in either MP (p=0.117) and JP (p=0.136). Compared to placebo, MSM supplementation resulted in nearly significantly lower MP at T1 (MSM=27.3mm vs. Placebo=39.3mm, p=0.063), and lower MP at T2 (27.1mm vs. 40.0mm; p=0.300), and T3 (30.0mm vs. 41.9mm; p=0.306). Similar results were seen for JP at T1 (24.2mm vs. 42.4mm; p=0.156), T2 (22.7mm vs 39.3mm; p=0.204), and T3 (15.4mm vs. 32.2mm; p=0.152).
Conclusion: Exercise-induced muscle pain and joint pain increase within 15 minutes after completing a half-marathon, continue through the following day, and diminish approximately two days post-race. Three weeks of MSM supplementation at 3g/day attenuated post-exercise muscle and joint pain at clinically significant levels compared to placebo. However, the pain reductions did not reach statistical significance, warranting further research on MSM and post-exercise pain using a larger group.
Background: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory & antioxidant effects in mammals. Resistance exercise is known to induce both inflammation & oxidative stress resulting in muscular discomfort & pain. In a pilot-proof of concept study, we determined the effects of MSM on markers of exercise recovery & performance.
Methods: In random order 24 moderately exercise-trained men (25.5±5.6 yrs) received MSM 3.0 gm/d or PLA, for 14 days, with a 17-day washout between. The study included 3 tests: baseline, no product & the 2nd & 3rd following 14d supplementation with MSM & PLA. Each test consisted of 2 visits. At the 1st visit, subjects performed stressing exercise; 28 total sets of leg extensions, sets 1-25, predetermined weight, 10 reps each, sets 26-28 to muscular failure at 70% 1-RM (performance). At the 2nd visit (48 hrs later), subjects performed 12 total sets of leg ext, sets 1-9, predetermined weight, sets 10-12 to muscular failure, 70% 1-RM (performance). Muscle discomfort/pain (10-point VAS scale), inflammation (hs-CRP & IL-6), blood antioxidant status (TEAC & SOD), & homocysteine were measured before the stressing exercise and 2 & 48 hours post exercise. Exercise performance was also measured following 14d supplementation with MSM/PLA (sets 26-28 and sets 10-12). In order to eliminate sequence effects, results are provided on the 1st product as compared to baseline (comparison of the 1st & 2nd tests).
Results: MSM intervention resulted in significantly less pain/discomfort vs. PLA from baseline to 2 hrs (1.55±0.82 vs 3.75±2.58, p=0.012). Change in IL-6 was significant within the MSM & PLA & between MSM (0.54±0.76) vs PLA (-0.58±0.97) p = 0.006. There were no significant differences between MSM & PLA noted for the other biomarkers.
Conclusion: MSM may help alleviate the discomfort/pain that can follow a stressful exercise session.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound commonly found in diet and known to reduce oxidative stress. This trial was conducted to determine whether single dose supplementation with MSM attenuates post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy untrained young men. Sixteen untrained men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into 2 groups: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) (n = 8) and placebo (n = 8). The participants took supplementation or placebo before running on treadmill for 45 min at 75% VO2max. The MSM supplementation was prepared in water as 100 mg/kg body weight. The placebo group received water. Serum Malondealdehyde (MDA), uric acid, bilirubin, protein carbonyl (PC) and plasma vitamin E levels were determined as the markers of oxidative stress. Plasma GSH (reduced Glutathione) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured as markers of plasma antioxidant system. MSM supplementation successfully lowered serum PC 2 and 24 h after exercise. Plasma TAC in MSM group was higher at 24 h after exercise. Serum level of uric acid and bilirubin were significantly low immediately after exercise in MSM supplemented group. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of plasma GSH level. These results complement earlier studies showing anti-oxidant effect of MSM and suggest that single dose oral supplementation with MSM lowers exercise induced oxidative stress in healthy untrained young men, but is not adequate to significantly affect plasma GSH level.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of 10-day methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage.
METHODS: Eighteen healthy, non-smoking, active young men were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (M) (N.=9) and placebo (P) (N.=9). Subjects consumed daily either placebo (200 mL water) or MSM supplement (50 mg/kg MSM in 200 mL water) for 10 days. Afterward, participants ran 14 km. Blood samples were taken before supplementation, before exercise, immediately, 30 min, 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise.
RESULTS: CK and bilirubin significantly increased in P group 24 h after exercise compared to M group (P=0.041 and P=0.002, respectively). TAC increased immediately post, 30 min, 2 and 24 h after exercise just in M group (P<0.05). TAC showed significant increase in M group 2 and 24 h after exercise compared to P group (P=0.014 and P=0.033, respectively).
CONCLUSION: It seems that 10-day supplementation with MSM has allowed to decrease muscle damage via effect on antioxidant capacity.
BACKGROUND: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept) study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men.
METHODS: Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old) who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising <150 minutes per week) were randomly assigned to ingest MSM at either 1.5 grams per day or 3.0 grams per day for 30 days (28 days before and 2 days following exercise). Before and after the 28 day intervention period, subjects performed 18 sets of knee extension exercise in an attempt to induce muscle damage (and to be used partly as a measure of exercise performance). Sets 1-15 were performed at a predetermined weight for 10 repetitions each, while sets 16-18 were performed to muscular failure. Muscle soreness (using a 5-point Likert scale), fatigue (using the fatigue-inertia subset of the Profile of Mood States), blood antioxidant status (glutathione and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity [TEAC]), and blood homocysteine were measured before and after exercise, pre and post intervention. Exercise performance (total work performed during sets 16-18 of knee extension testing) was also measured pre and post intervention.
RESULTS: Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080), with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined). TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035), while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007). No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the effects of chronic daily methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in untrained healthy young men.
METHODS: Eighteen untrained men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: MSM (n = 9) and placebo (n = 9). The participants took supplementation or placebo daily for 10 days before running. Participants ran 14 km. The MSM supplementation was prepared in water at 50 mg/kg body weight. The placebo group received water. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and plasma oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were measured as markers of oxidative stress. The plasma-reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the GSH/GSSG ratio were determined as markers of plasma antioxidant capacity.
KEY FINDINGS: Acute exercise led to elevated levels of serum MDA, PC and plasma GSSG. MSM supplementation maintained PC, MDA and GSSG at lower levels after exercise than the placebo. The plasma level of GSH and the ratio of GSH/GSSG were significantly higher in the MSM supplemented group.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that chronic daily oral supplementation of MSM has alleviating effects on known markers of oxidative stress following acute bouts of exercise in healthy young men.
Objective. The effects and perception of aging are directly reflected in the health and condition of the skin. Beauty and antiaging products largely focus on treatment of the skin with an outside-in strategy. There is demand for “beauty from within” products that support underlying internal processes necessary for healthy and vital skin. This study assesses the effectiveness of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) as an oral supplement on skin health using expert grading, instrumental measurements, and participant self-evaluation. Methods. An initial preclinical in vitro gene marker study evaluated the effects of 2.5% MSM solution on the expression of 92 genes associated with skin function. The primary double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomized 20 female participants to receive either 3 g per day of MSM or placebo over 16 weeks. Skin health was evaluated through expert grading, instrumentation, and participant self-assessment at weeks 8 and 16. Results. MSM regulates the genomic expression of key genes responsible for skin health and the prevention of aging. Furthermore, MSM supplementation showed statistically significant improvements over placebo by expert grading in crow’s feet and skin firmness, and statistically significant improvements from baseline in crow’s feet, skin firmness, tone, and texture. Using photo instrumentation analysis, MSM supplementation produced statistically significant improvements over placebo for wrinkle (crow’s feet) total count, length, severity, and deep line counts and for wrinkles (global) total count, length, and severity. The product was well tolerated, and overall, the MSM group gave more favorable self-assessment than the placebo group, though the improvement was not statistically significant. Conclusion. MSM supplementation appears to benefit skin health, primarily the reduction of fine lines and wrinkles. Effects on gene expression may partially account for the benefits, but further research is needed to verify results and mechanism of action.
Objective: This study aims to evaluate a topical treatment based on silymarin/methyl- sulfonilmethane (S-MSM) to improve erythematous-telangiectactic rosacea.
Methods: Forty-six patients affected by stage I–III rosacea entered this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were treated for 1 month. Clinical and instrumental evaluations were done at baseline, after 10 and 20 days, and at the end of the study. Itching, stinging, erythema, and papules were investigated clinically as well as hydration and erythema instrumentally with capacitance and color measurements.
Results: A statistically significant improvement was observed in many clinical and instrumental parameters investigated ( P < 0.001). In particular, improvement of skin redness, papules, itching, hydration, and skin color occurred.
Conclusions: The combination of silymarin and S-MSM can be useful in managing symptoms and condition of rosacea skin, especially in the rosacea subtype 1 erythemato-telangiectatic phase. The action can be considered multicentric and multiphase because of the direct modulating action on cytokines and angiokines normally involved and up-regulated in the case of such skin condition.
Background. Inflammation is associated with strenuous exercise and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Physically active men were supplemented with either placebo or MSM (3 grams per day) for 28 days before performing 100 repetitions of eccentric knee extension exercise. Ex vivo and in vitro testing consisted of evaluating cytokine production in blood (whole blood and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)) exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), before and through 72 hours after exercise, while in vivo testing included the evaluation of cytokines before and through 72 hours after exercise. Results. LPS stimulation of whole blood after MSM supplementation resulted in decreased induction of IL-1í µí»½, with no effect on IL-6, TNF-í µí»¼, or IL-8. After exercise, there was a reduced response to LPS in the placebo, but MSM resulted in robust release of IL-6 and TNF-í µí»¼. A small decrease in resting levels of proinflammatory cytokines was noted with MSM, while an acute postexercise increase in IL-10 was observed with MSM. Conclusion. Strenuous exercise causes a robust inflammatory reaction that precludes the cells from efficiently responding to additional stimuli. MSM appears to dampen the release of inflammatory molecules in response to exercise, resulting in a less incendiary environment, allowing cells to still have the capacity to mount an appropriate response to an additional stimulus after exercise.
Background: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has been reported to positively influence markers of inflammation and exercise recovery, including decreasing muscle soreness and fatigue. Acute exercise induces tissue damage that results in sterile inflammation that is propagated by secreted mediators such as IL-6 and TNF-a. Regulation of the inflammatory response is critical as chronic inflammation is associated with a plethora of diseases. In addition to the exercise recovery, MSM has also been reported to reduce inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and allergy. Based on these data we designed a pilot study to determine the effect of MSM on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - induced inflammatory mediators after a single bout of acute eccentric exercise. Methods: Blood was collected from five recreationally active, healthy men after 28 days of supplementation with MSM (OptiMSM®; Bergstrom Nutrition, Vancouver, WA) or placebo (rice flour) indicated by “Base”. Subjects #19 and #20 received placebo, while #36, #39 and #40 received 3 g of MSM per day. A single bout of acute exercise (10 sets of 10 repetitions of eccentric knee extensions) was performed and additional blood samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post exercise. 250 μl of whole blood was plated in a 96-well U bottom plate containing 50 μl of tissue culture media (RPMI1640, antibiotics, 10% FBS) with or without LPS (final concentrations = 0.2 ug/ml). The samples were then incubated at 37°C for 24 h and plasma collected by centrifugation and stored at -80°C until analysis. Plasma cytokine concentrations were determined using a MILLIPLEX MAP human custom cytokine magnetic bead panel that included analytes for IL-1b, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17a and TNF-a. Analytes were quantified using a MAGPIX® and xPONENT software. Results: The supplementation of MSM blunted the increase in the systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-1b) immediately after exercise. Ex vivo incubation of blood from various time points with LPS, caused a dramatic increase in inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-6, IL-1b and TNF-a) only after exercise for samples that was exposed to MSM. This response is specific to the stimulation with LPS as secretion of LPS-non responsive proteins is not increased, as evident by the stable levels of IL-17a. There is also a 2-3 fold increase in IL-10 production after LPS stimulation for the MSM group despite having lower IL-10 levels before exercise. Conclusion: MSM is able to reduce the initial cytokine surge that is induced by acute exercise, while allowing for an efficient response to infectious stimuli after a single bout of acute exercise.
BACKGROUND: Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) affects more than 23 million Americans annually, and current epidemiologic studies indicate that its prevalence within the United States is increasing. Numerous clinical observations and case studies have led researchers to hypothesize that methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) may help ameliorate the symptoms associated with SAR. OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MSM in the reduction of SAR-associated symptoms. This study also examined possible adverse reactions associated with methylsulfonylmethane supplementation. Finally, this study attempted to elucidate the method of action by which MSM elicits its effect on allergy symptoms.
DESIGN: Fifty-five (55) subjects were recruited for the study. All met the criteria for participation in the study. 50 subjects completed the study. Those subjects completing the study consumed 2,600 mg of MSM orally per day for 30 days. Clinical respiratory symptoms and energy levels were evaluated by a Seasonal Allergy Symptom Questionnaire (SASQ) at baseline and on days 7, 14, 21, and 30. Immune and inflammatory reactions were measured by plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) and C-reactive protein at baseline and on day 30. An additional inflammatory biomarker, plasma histamine, was measured in a subset of subjects (n = 5). RESULTS: Day 7 upper and total respiratory symptoms were reduced significantly from baseline (p < 0.01 and p < 0.005, respectively). Lower respiratory symptoms were significantly improved from baseline by week 3 (p < 0.001). All respiratory improvements were maintained through the 30-day visit. Energy levels increased significantly by day 14 (p < 0.0001); this increase continued through day 30. No significant changes were observed in plasma IgE or histamine levels. The results of this study are promising. It would be worthwhile to conduct a larger, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish further if MSM would be a useful agent in the treatment of symptoms associated with SAR.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that MSM supplementation of 2,600 mg/day for 30 days may be efficacious in the reduction of symptoms associated with SAR. Furthermore, few side effects are associated with the use of this compound. Recent acute and subacute chronic toxicologic data on the same source of MSM as used in this study, further validate the safety of this product.